BOOKS | ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS
Arons, Arnold B. A Guide to Introductory Physics Teaching. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1990.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Cahn, Steven M. Scholars Who Teach. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1978.
Christensen, C. Roland, Abby J. Hansen, and James F. Moore. Teaching and the Case Method - Instructor's Guide. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1987.
Christensen, C. Roland, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweets, eds. Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1991.
Davis, Barbara Gross. Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.
Katz, Joseph and Mildred Henry. Turning Professors into Teachers. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1993.
Kolb, David A. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1984.
Lowman, Joseph. Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995.
Marsh, Herbert W. and Lawrence A. Roche. The Use of Students' Evaluations of University Teaching to Improve Teaching Effectiveness. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1994.
McKeachie, Wilbert J. Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company, 1986.
Modell, Harold I. and Joel A. Michael, eds. Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 701 (1993).
Pascarella, Ernest T. and Patrick T. Terenzini. How College Affects Students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1991.
Perry, William G. Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. Boston: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1968.
Schwartz, Barry, and Daniel Reisberg. Learning and Memory. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1991: especially, 251ff.
Tobias, Sheila. Revitalizing Undergraduate Science. Tucson, Arizona: Research Corporation, 1992.
Wittrock, Merlin C. Handbook of Research on Teaching, Third Edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986.
Arons, Arnold B. "Critical Thinking and the Baccalaureate Curriculum." Liberal Education 71 (Summer, 1985): 141-158.
Angelo, Thomas Anthony. "Classroom Assessment: Assessing to Improve Higher Learning in the Life Sciences," Model, H.I. and J.A. Michael, eds. Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1993: 61-75.
Bain, Kenneth. "What's Wrong (and Right) with Lectures?" The Class Act, June, 1993: 1-7.
Barzun, Jacques. "Multiple Choice Flunks Out," The New York Times, October 11, 1988: 27.
Boice, Robert. "Quick Starters: New Faculty Who Succeed," in Theall, Michael and Jennifer Franklin, eds. Effective Practices for Improving Teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 48. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991: 111-120.
Bruffee Kenneth A. "Consensus Groups: A Basic Model of Classroom Collaboration." in Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993: 28-51. Bruffee Kenneth A. "Collaboration, Conversation, and Reacculturation," in Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993: 15-27.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind,'" in Goodsell, Anne, Michelle Maher, and Vincent Tinto, eds. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. State College, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, 1992: 23-33.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Mime and Supermime: Collaborative Learning and Instructional Technology," in Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993: 98-110.
Clinchy, Blythe McVicker. "Issues of Gender in Teaching and Learning," Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 1 (1990): 52-67.
Day, Ruth S. "Teaching from Notes: Some Cognitive Consequences," W.J. McKeachie, ed. Learning, Cognition, and College Teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980: 95-112.
Frederick, Peter J. "Motivating Students by Active Learning in the History Classroom," Perspectives, American Historical Association Newsletter 31 (1993): 15-19.
Hanning, R. W. "The Classroom as Theater of Self: Some Observations for Beginning Teachers," ADE Bulletin 77 (1984): 33-37.
Lowman, Joseph. "Evaluating Student Performance: Testing and Grading," in Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984. 184-209.
Lowman, Joseph. "Selecting and Organizing Material for Class Presentations," in Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, : 96-118.
Machina, Kenton. "Evaluating Student Evaluations," Academe, May-June 1987: 1-2.
Modell, Harold I. and Robert G. Carroll. "Promoting Active Learning in Large Groups," in Modell H.I. and J.A. Michael, eds. Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1993: 49-60.
Modell, Harold I. and Joel A. Michael. "Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom: Defining the Issues," in Modell, H. I. and J. A. Michael, eds. Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1993: 1-7.
Nelson, Craig E. "Skewered on the Unicorn's Horn: The Illusion of Tragic Tradeoff Between Content and Critical Thinking in the Teaching of Science," in Crow, Linda W., ed. Enhancing Critical Thinking in the Sciences. Washington DC: Society for College Science Teachers, 1989: 17-27.
Perry, Elizabeth. "Group Work and the Double Circle: Enriching Discussion in the Mid-Sized Class," The Class Act, February 1994.
Rubin, Sharon. "Professors, Students, and the Syllabus," The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 7, 1985: 1-3.
Stice, James E. "A First Step Toward Improved Teaching," Engineering Education 66 (1976): 394-398.
Syverud, Kent D. "Taking Students Seriously: A Guide for New Law Teachers," Journal of Legal Education, June 1993: 23-33.
Treisman, Uri. "Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College," The College Mathematics Journal, November, 1992: 362-372.
Weiss, Carol A. "But How Do We Get Them to Think?" Teaching Excellence: Toward the Best in the Academy 4 (1992): 1-2.
Welty, William M. "Discussion Method Teaching," Change 21 (No. 4, 1989): 41-49.
Bibliography Developed by Kenneth R. Bain
Our faculty member will find below a variety of different kinds of sources, from journal articles and books to brief opinion pieces from the Chronicle of Higher Education. The subject matter includes social science research on how students in large lecture courses, chapters on lecturing from teaching handbooks, the reflections and reports of lecturers who have experimented successfully with small group or discussion strategies in large classes, and polemics both for and against the lecture as a viable teaching format.
"What Students Think About and Do in College Lecture Classes." Teaching Learning Issues 53 (1984).
Brooks, David W. "Alternatives to Traditional Lecturing." Journal of Chemical Education 61 (1984): 858-859.
Improving Lectures. Cashin, William E. newsletter. 14 1985. Manhattan, Kansas: Center for Faculty Education and Development, Kansas State University.
Is the Lecture a Dead Teaching Form? Clayson, S. Hollis. Apr 12, 1994. Evanston, IL. Searle Center for Teaching Excellence, Northwestern University.
Dubrow, Heather and James , Wilkinson. "The Theory and Practice of Lectures." The Art and Craftof Teaching. Gullette, M. M. ed. Cambridge: Harvard-Danforth Center, 1982. 25-37.
Dunn, Joe P. "Reflections of a Recovering Lectureholic." National Teaching & Learning Forum 3 (1994)
Frederick, Peter J. "The Lively Lecture - 8 Variations." College Teaching 34 (1986): 43-50.
Gleason, Maryellen. "Better Communication in Large Courses." College Teaching 34 (1986): 20-24.
Gullette, Margaret Morganroth. "Leading Discussion in a Lecture Course: Some Maxims and an Exhortation." Change (1992): 32-39.
Hosley, Catherine J. "How To Get Reactions From Students In Big, Impersonal Lecture Classes." Chronicle of Higher Education 1987, 15
Lewis, Karron G. Taming the Pedagogical Monster: A Handbook for Large Class Instructors. Book: Center for Teaching Effectiveness, University of Texas at Austin, 1990.
Lowman, Joseph. "Selecting and Organizing Material for Class Presentations." Mastering theTechniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1984. 96-118.
Lowman, Joseph. Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 1984.
McKeachie, Wilbert J. "Lecturing." Teaching Tips. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1986. 69-85.
Meredith, Gerald M. "Two Rating Indicators of Excellence in Teaching in Lecture-Format Courses." Psychological Reports 56 (1985): 52-54.
Meredith, Gerald M. "Intimacy as a Variable in Lecture-Format Courses." Psychological Reports 57 (1985): 484-486.
Merrill Library & Learning Resources Program. "The Large Class." Instructional Improvement 8 (1973): 1-3.
Monk, G. Stephen. "Student Engagement and Teaching Power in Large Classes." Learning inGroups. Bouton, C., and R. Y., Garth eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. 1983. 14. 7-12.
Palmer, Stacy E. "The Art of Lecturing: A Few Simple Ideas Can Help Teachers Improve Their Skills." Chronicle of Higher Education 1983, 19-20.
Rosenkoetter, John S. "Teaching Psychology to Large Classes: Videotapes, PSI, and Lecturing." Teaching of Psychology 11 (1984): 85-87.
Silverstein, Brett. "Teaching a Large Lecture Course in Psychology: Turning Defeat into Victory." Teaching of Psychology 9 (1982): 150-155.
Stanton, Harry E. "Small Group Teaching in the Lecture Situation." Improving College andUniversity Teaching 26 (1978): 69-70.
Weaver, Richard L. II. "Effective Lecturing Techniques: Alternatives to Classroom Boredom." Teacher Educator 16 (1980): 2-8.
Weaver, Richard L. II. "The Small Group in Large Classes." Educational Forum 48 (1983): 65-73.
Whooley, John. "Improving the Lecture." Improving College and University Teaching 22 (1974): 183-185.
Wick, John W. "Making a Big Lecture Section a Good Course." Improving College and UniversityTeaching 22 (1974): 249-252.
Lecturing as Communication. Zarefsky, David. 1994. Evanston. Searle Center for Teaching Excellence, Northwestern University.
Bibliography Developed by Ken Bain
Our search for materials on classroom discussions called up over one hundred books, articles, or videotapes, so we had to do some considerable pruning to get to the basic issues for our teaching assistant: how will she get the discussion started, keep it moving along and on track, and ensure that learning is taking place? We culled the following from our initial list, again a mix of books, book chapters, articles from periodicals, and videotapes.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Consensus Groups: A Basic Model of Classroom Collaboration." Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Bruffee, Kenneth A. ed. Baltimore Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. 28-51.
Christensen, C. Roland. "Every Student Teaches and Every Teacher Learns: The Reciprocal Gift of Discussion Teaching." Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Christensen, C. Roland David A., Garvin, and Ann , Sweet eds. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1991. 99-119.
Christensen, C. Roland. "The Discussion Teacher in Action: Questioning, Listening and Response." Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Christensen, C. Roland David A., Garvin, and Ann , Sweet eds. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1991. 153-172.
Christensen, Terry. "Calling on Students Without Fear and Loathing." College Teaching 37 (1989): 33-35.
Clarke, John H. "Designing Discussions as Group Inquiry." College Teaching 36 (1988): 140-143.
Ewens, William. "Teaching Using Discussion." Organizational Behavior Teaching Review 10 (1986): 77-81.
Frederick, Peter. "The Dreaded Discussion: Ten Ways to Start." Improving College and UniversityTeaching 29 (1980): 109-114.
Glidden, Jock and Joanne G., Kurfiss. "Small-Group Discussion in Philosophy." College Teaching 38 (1990): 3-8.
Gravette, Darlene J. "Asking the Right Questions, A Key to Good Class Discussions." TeachingEnglish in the Two-Year College 12 (1985): 300-302.
Jacobson, Robert L. "Asking Questions is the Key Skill Needed for 'Discussion Teaching'." Chronicle of Higher Education 1984, 20
Kraft, Robert G. "Group Inquiry Turns Passive Students Active." College Teaching 33 (1985): 149-154.
Long, Dale D. and Jo C., Bedard. "Evaluation of a Discussion Technique Used for Both Classroom Instruction and Grade Assignment." American Journal of Physics 53 (1985): 401-405.
Lowman, Joseph. "Enhancing Learning Through Classroom Discussion." Mastering the Techniquesof Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1984. 119-144.
Forging an Intellectual Community in Small Classes. McEvoy, Arthur F. 1993. Evanston. Northwestern University.
McKeachie, Wilbert J. Teaching Tips:A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher. 8th ed. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1986.
Rosmarin, Adena. "The Art of Leading a Discussion." On Teaching and Learning 1 (1985): 34-39.
Scott, Anne Firor. "Why I Teach by Discussion." The Academic's Handbook. Deneef, Leigh A. ed. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988. 141-145.
Smith, Barbara Leigh. "Creating Learning Communities." Liberal Education 79 (1993): 32-39.
Teaching with Discussion. Tlumack, Jeffrey S. 1992. Video. Vanderbilt University Teaching Center.
Tyler, I. Keith. "Learning Through Discussion." The Two Ends of the Log. Cooper, Russell M. ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958. 254-261.
Welty, William M. "Discussion Method Teaching: How to Make It Work." Change 21 (1989): 41-49.
Worsley, Alice F. "Improving Classroom Discussions: Ten Principles." Improving College andUniversity Teaching 23 (1975): 27-28.
Yelon, Stephen L. and Colleen R., Cooper. "Discussion: A Naturalistic Study of a Teaching Method." Instructional Science 13 (1984): 213-224.
Developed by Ken Bain
We can assist this faculty member by pointing her to the rich literature of psychological studies on motivation and human learning, most of which–although the actual language may vary–contrast extrinsic motivation (performing for a grade) with intrinsic motivation (developing an internalized interest in the subject matter). Many of the studies below chart experiments which tested the relationship between motivation orientation (extrinsic or intrinsic) and performance, and many of them offer practical suggestions for helping our students develop an intrinsic interest in–and hence an intrinsic motivation for studying–our subject matter.
Ames, Russell and Carole Ames. "Motivation and Effective Teaching." Educational Values andCognitive Instruction: Implications for Reform. Idol, Lorna, and Beau Fly , Jones eds. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum and Associates, 1991. 247-271.
Brewer, Ernest W., John O., Dunn, and Patricia , Olszewski. "Extrinsic Reward and Intrinsic Motivation: the Vital Link Between Classroom Management and Student Performance." Journalof Education for Teaching 14 (1988): 151-170.
Brown, Ann L. "Motivation to Learn and Understand: On Taking Charge of One's Own Learning." Cognition and Instruction 5 (1988): 311-321.
Davis, Barbara Gross. Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc. 1993.
Deci, Edward L. "Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation." Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology 18 (1970)
Deci, Edward L. and Joseph , Porac. "Cognitive Evaluation and Human Motivation." CognitiveEvaluation and Theory and the Study of Human Motivation. Leeper, Mark R., and David , Greene eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978. 155-158.
Fair, Emile M. III and Lynette , Silvestri. "Effects of Rewards, Competition and Outcome on Intrinsic Motivation." Journal of Instructional Psychology 19 (1992): 3-8.
Frederick, Peter J. "Motivating Students by Active Learning in the History Classroom." Perspectives 31 (1993): 15-19.
Lepper, Mark R. "Motivational Considerations in the Study of Instruction." Cognition andInstruction 5 (1997): 289-309.
Marsh, Herbert W. "Experimental Manipulations of University Student Motivation and Effects on Examination Performance." British Journal of Educational Psychology 54 (1984): 206-213.
McMillan, James H. and Donelson R., Forsyth. "What Theories of Motivation Say About Why Learners Learn." College Teaching: From Theory to Practice. Menges, Robert J., and Marilla D., Svinicki eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1991. 45. 39-52.
Motivating Students: How to Light Their Fire. Norden, Jeanette. Oct 24, 1994. Evanston, IL. Center for Teaching, Vanderbilt University.
Perry, Raymond P., Verena H., Menec, and C. Ward , Struthers. "Student Motivation From a Teaching Perspective." Teaching on Solid Ground: Using Scholarship to Improve Practice. Menges, Robert J., and Maryellen , Weimer eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996. 75-100.
Sakurai, Shigeo. "The Effects of Four Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation." Psychologia 33 (1990): 220-229.
Weissinger, Ellen, Linda L., Caldwell, and Deborah L., Bandalos. "Relation Between Intrinsic Motivation and Boredom in Leisure Time." Leisure Sciences 14 (1992): 317-325.
Westrom, Marv and Abdullah , Shaban. "Intrinsic Motivation in Microcomputer Games." Journalof Research on Computing in Education 24 (1992): 433-445.