Citing Government Documents:
American Psychological Association
According to the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association. 6th ed. (2010).
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
General Guidelines | Executive Agency Documents | Congressional
Documents | Government Document Periodical Articles | Federal Legal References | Treaties | ERIC Documents | Nebraska State Documents | Electronic and Online Resources - General
Guidance | Online Federal Documents | Online Nebraska State Documents
§ In-text citations | Reference list
Federal agency documents
§ Executive Agency Documents
§ Document with personal author | Document with personal authors, multivolume work | Government agency as author | Multivolume sets | Editors | Series | Work not a first edition
§ House/Senate Hearing | House/Senate Reports and Documents | House/Senate Committee Print | House/Senate Bill
§ Government Document Periodical Articles
§ Federal Legal References
§ Court case | U. S. Code and Statutes | U. S. Constitution | Federal Register | Code
of Federal Regulations | Executive order | Treaties
§ ERIC Documents
Nebraska agency documents
§ Nebraska State Documents
§ Corporate author | Personal author | Periodical Articles (Corporate author and personal author)
§ Nebraska Legal References
§ Laws of Nebraska | Nebraska Statutes | Nebraska Supreme Court and Court of Appeals | Nebraska
Electronic/online resources: Federal documents
§ Electronic and Online Resources - general
§ Online Federal Documents - individual works | Periodical article | Government report | CD-ROM/DVD's | Statistical table on a CD | ERIC Document
§ Congressional and legal materials (L/N = Lexis/Nexis)
§ Congressional hearing | Congressional bill - L/N Congressional | House/Senate report or document - L/N Congressional | Congressional Record - L/N Congressional | U. S. Statutes at Large - L/N Congressional | U. S. Code - L/N Congressional | U. S. Constitution - GPO Access | Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents
or Public Papers of the President from GPO Access | U. S. Supreme Court cases - L/N Academic | Code of Federal Regulations - L/N Academic | Federal Register - L/N Congressional
Electronic/online resources: Nebraska
§ Documents from Nebraska State Government
§ Personal author | Agency as author | Periodical article | Statistical table
§ Legislative bill | Nebraska Blue Book | Unicameral Update
Nebraska legal resources
§ Nebraska Supreme Court or Court of Appeals - L/N Academic | Nebraska Statutes - L/N Academic | Nebraska Administrative Code
This guide is based on:
American Psychological Association. (2010) Publication Manual of
the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. *BF 76.7 .P83 2010
(Library Reference Collection, main floor)
Supplementary material available at: http://www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspx
GUIDELINES: Citations in the Text
The American Psychological Association recommends citation of
sources within the text
of a paper rather than in footnotes. The text citation briefly identifies the
source and enables readers to locate it in the reference list at the end of the
paper. (p. 174)
APA journals use the author-date method of citation. The surname of the author and
the year of publication are inserted in the text in one of the following
Smith (2000) compared reaction times [author is part of narrative]
In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 2000) [use both author and date]
In 2000, Smith compared [If both year and author are given in the text, no
parenthetical information is needed.]
If a work has two authors, always cite both names every time a
reference occurs in the text. If a work has more than two authors and fewer than six
authors, cite all authors the
first time the reference occurs and only the surname of the first author,
followed by "et al." (not italicized and no period after
"et") in subsequent citations. (p. 175)
If a work has more than six authors, use only the surname of the first author
followed by "et al." and the year for the first and subsequent
citations. (p. 175)
Precede the final name
in a multiple-author citation in the text by the word "and". In
parenthetical citations and in the reference list, use an ampersand [&] (p.
as Kurtines and Szapocznik (2003) demonstrated
as has been shown (Kurtines & Szapocznik, 2003)
Names of corporate authors (corporations, associations, government
agencies, study groups, etc.) are usually spelled out each time they appear in
a text citation. If the name is familiar you may abbreviate it in second and
subsequent citations. If the name is short or if the abbreviation would not be
readily understandable, spell out the name each time it occurs. (p. 176)
1. First text citation:
of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)
Use brackets to
indicate the abbreviation you intend to use in subsequent citations.
Subsequent text citations:
Entry in reference
National Institute of
Mental Health. (2003).
»»NOTE: The Manual offers contradictory examples for corporate authors
(government agencies). On p. 174 it states "Each reference cited in
the text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference
list must be cited in text. Make certain that each source referenced
appears in both places and that the text citation and reference list entry are
identical in spelling of author names and year." In table 6.1 (p.
177) the in-text example given is: "National Institute of Health
(NIMH, 2003)", as in the example above. However in chapter 7,
"Reference Examples", where examples of reference list entries are
located, section 7.03 uses this example: "U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health,..." Ask
your professor if you should use both forms or if they should be identical in
the in-text citation and the reference list.
2. Example of the name of a corporate author that is spelled out (Table 6. 1, p. 177):
Reference list entry:
ALL text citations:
3. Congressional publications: Examples for in-text citations are given
GENERAL GUIDELINES: Reference List
list contains only titles which have
been used to write a paper.
Every item on a reference list must be cited in the text and every reference
cited in the text must be in the reference list. (p. 174) In contrast, a
bibliography lists sources for background or further information. The reference
list provides information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
Each source cited in the text and on
the reference list must appear in identical form in both places.
»» Double-space the reference list and use a hanging indent for the
second and subsequent lines.
BASIC REFERENCE LIST FORMAT
»» Numbers refer to
chapter and section in Manual.
Can be a personal name or a corporate
agency; personal names should be inverted (last name listed first) and initials
used for the first and middle names. Spell out the full name of a corporate
author. A period follows the author's name (personal or corporate).
Date of Publication: (6.28)
Books: year book was published, enclosed in
Periodical article: Year, month, day (if applicable, separated by
a comma; in parentheses) followed by a period. If the date is a season
(spring, winter) give the year and season separated by a comma and enclosed in
Capitalize only the first word of the article title
and subtitle (if any) and proper names including names of task forces, treaties,
laws, congressional committees, etc. Do not underline or place quotation marks
around the title. End with a period. Use italics for the name of the
journal or magazine.
Capitalize as for periodical articles; italicize the
title. Enclose additional information such as edition or volume number (3rd ed.
or Vol. 2) in parentheses after the title. Do not use a period between the
title and the parenthetical information. End with a period.
Other formats: A description of the form of the work,
if necessary for identification, follows in brackets: [CD], [Computer
software], [Brochure], [Data file]. (p. 203)
contract number, monograph number, other publication number:
If an agency assigned a number to a
publication, give the number in parentheses immediately after the title. (p.
Publication information: (6.30)
Give the journal title in full, capitalizing all
important words, and italicize it. Give the volume number in italics. Do not
use "Vol." before the number. Give the issue number in parentheses
after the volume number; do not italicize it. Omit if issues are
paginated continuously from the beginning of the volume. If volume numbers are
not used, give the month or season, i. e. (1998, April). Give the inclusive
page numbers. Use commas between the journal name, volume number, and pages.
End with a period.
See also section for electronic resources.
Give the city and, if the city is not well known or
could be confused with another location, the state. Use two letter
abbreviations for states (i.e. Nebraska -- NE). Use a colon after the location.
Give the name of the publisher after the colon. Finish with a period. If the
publisher and author are the same, use the word "author" after the
location. (See example, "Nebraska State Document - Corporate author) (p.
Publisher : Unless otherwise indicated, most government documents are
published by the U. S. Government Printing Office. (7.03)
Use: Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
EXAMPLES OF GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS
Document with a
Force, R. (2004). Admiralty and maritime
law. Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office.
Document with personal
authors, multivolume work
L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Backman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2003). Monitoring
the future: National survey results on drug use, 1975 - 2003. (Vols. 1-2). (NIH
Publication No. 04-5507). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Agency as author
Aviation Administration. (2004). Seaplane, skiplane,
and float/ski equipped helicopter operations handbook (FAA-H-8083-23).
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
»»NOTE: If the issuing agency
has assigned a report, contract, or series number, give it in parentheses after
the title. Do not use a period between title and parentheses. (p.
Citing an entire
Bioethics Advisory Commission. (1997). Cloning human beings:
Report and recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (Vols. 1-2).
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
»»NOTE: If the above title
had been published over more than one year, the years would appear as
(1995-1997) after the agency. The text citation would be: (National Bioethics
Advisory Commission, 1995-1997). Name of commission capitalized because it is a
proper name. (p. 204)
Multivolume set, only one volume used
Bioethics Advisory Commission. (1997). Cloning human beings, Vol.
II: Commissioned papers. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
»»NOTE: If the volume used
does not have a distinctive subtitle, use "(Vol. 2)" after the
Editor(s) (no author)
L. P. & Wilson, F. H. (Eds.). (2001). Geological studies in
Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey, 1999. (U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
1633). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Series with personal
J. (2003). Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. (Cultural Landscape
Report). Atlanta, GA: National Park Service.
Series with a
Working Group for Education and Training in Forensic Science. (2004). Education
and training in forensic science: A guide for forensic science laboratories,
educational institutions, and students. (NIJ Special Report NCJ 203099). Washington, DC: National
Institute of Justice.
Work other than first edition
Department of Health and Human Services. Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for
Mathematics and Science Education. (2004). The guidebook of
federal resources for K-12 mathematics and science. (6th ed.).
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
»»NOTE: Use the name of the
department, office, subagency, or institute that was responsible for the
document and, if this agency isn't well known, also give the name of the higher
level department to which it belongs.
»»NOTE: APA style for citing Congressional publications
is based on The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. (18th ed., 2005). (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Law Review Association). (*KF245 .B58 2005 [Library Reference Collection]
For an in-text citation
to testimony, hearings, bills, resolutions, reports and
documents, give the title or number and date. (p. 221)
On reference lists always include the
title from the hearing, bill number (if any), subcommittee name, committee
name, number of the Congress, and date. When citing a complete hearing,
example (p. 222) also gives, after the Congress number, the page number where
the hearing begins: page 1. It may make more sense to include the
starting page number if it isn't page one.
(This also contradicts the example for citing an entire book on p. 202 - 203 in
which the starting page number is not included.)
The explanation (p. 221) also says that
the example includes the session of that Congress though no such number is
included in the example. If a number has
been assigned to a hearing, include it after the title. (p. 205)
House or Senate
Islam in Asia: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and the
Pacific of the House Committee on International Relations (Serial 108-134),
108th Cong. (2004).
To cite one person's testimony:
(as above) ...108th
Cong. 8 (2004) (testimony of Meredith Weiss).
"8" is the page number where her testimony
begins. Give name of witness.
In-text: (Islam in Asia,
Development of a national animal identification plan: Hearing
before the Subcommittee on Marketing, Inspection, and Product Promotion of the
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry (S. hrg. 108-606),
U.S. Senate, 108th Cong. (2004).
In-text: (Development of a
National Animal Identification Plan, 2004)
House or Senate Reports and Documents
H.R. Rep. No. 108-588, at 7 (2004).
In-text: (H.R. Rep. No.
»»NOTE: Use S. Rep. for a
Senate report, H.R. Doc. or S. Doc. for House or Senate document.
The Manual included the page number where the material starts in the
reference list example. (p. 223) It also says to use the
"year" of the Congress but the example uses the number of the Congress (which is standard
practice). Use the number of the Congress: "108th
Congress", "110th Congress".
House or Senate
Iraq: Meeting the challenge, sharing the burden, staying the
course, a trip report to members of the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, 108th
Cong., (S. Prt. 108-31). (2003).
In-text: (Iraq: Meeting the Challenge, 2003)
»»NOTE: Use H.R. Prt. for a
House print. Senate and House prints are not addressed in the APA Manual. The above is based on the general guidelines
for other materials.
House or Senate bill
»»NOTE: Bills that have
become law (have passed) should be cited to the U. S. Statutes at
Large (see below).
For unenacted bills (bills that did not
pass): Use this same format for resolutions, concurrent resolutions, etc.
Include Congress and session number. If a specific section is cited, put the
section number in front of the year.
Reinvestment Act of 1999, S. 25, 106th Cong. (1999).
In-text: (S. 25, 1999)
To cite a specific section (" § " means
Endangered Species Criminal and Civil Penalties Liability Reform Act, H.R. 496,
106th Cong. § 4 (1999).
DOCUMENT PERIODICAL ARTICLES
»»NOTE: The APA Manual does not give specific rules for citing
government document periodical articles. These examples follow the general
periodical guidelines. (p. 185) See "Electronic and Online Resources" section for articles found online.
Use italics and upper and lower case
letters for the periodical title.
Return to Table of Contents
Capitalize the first word of the title
and subtitle. Do not italicize or put the title of the article in quotation
Give the volume number; do not use
"Vol." before it.
If each issue begins with page one,
give the issue number in parentheses, after the volume number. Don't use the
issue number if pages start at the beginning of the volume and continue into
the next issue (pagination by volume).
Use italics for the periodical title
and volume number. Do not italicize the issue number. (p. 186)
Article with one
author, pagination by issue
G. (2004). On native language intrusions and making do with words:
Linguistically homogenous classrooms and native language use. English
Teaching Forum, 42 (4), 20-25.
Volume 42, issue number four, pages 20 - 25; include the issue
Article with several
authors, pagination by volume
M. H., Manning, B. B., & Robinson, E. H. (2004). Effects of dietary protein
concentration on production characteristics of pond-raised channel catfish fed
once daily or once every other day to satiation. North
American Journal of Aquaculture, 66, 184-190.
Volume 66; do not include the issue number for journals with page numbers that
start at the beginning of the volume and continue from issue to
Article with no author
Regulatory initiatives for dietary
supplements. (2005). FDA Consumer, 39 (1), 27.
»»In-text citation: Use a shortened title (full title if it is
short) in quotation marks and date. The example on page 200 of the Manual uses capital letters for words in the
("Regulatory Initiatives," 2005)
The APA Manual
follows the form of legal citation found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (18th ed.) (2005). (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Law Review Association).
Text citations are formed from the
first few words of the reference list entry and the date. Give enough
information for the reader to locate the reference list entry easily. (p.
Some of these examples follow general
guidelines for citing legal materials since the Manual provides no guidance for legal materials
beyond court cases and statutes.
Do not italicize the abbreviation for
the legal set ("U. S." or "U. S. C.", etc.). Use
capital letters for words in the names of laws, court cases, and
Court case: U. S. Supreme Court
In-text: (Cupp v. Murphy, 1972)
»»NOTE: Name of the case,
italicized; year of decision.
Reference list: Cupp v. Murphy, 412
U. S. 291 (1972).
Volume 412, U. S. Supreme Court Reports, page 291, year decided.
U. S. Code and U. S. Statutes
Environmental Policy Act (1969)
»»NOTE: Give the popular or
official name of the act and the year.
Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. §4332 (2006).
Title 42, U.S. Code,
section 4332, 2006 edition.
If the law is currently in force, cite
it to the U. S. Code,
rather than the historical session law compilation, U. S. Statutes at
If the latter must be cited, use:
In-text: National Invasive
Species Act of 1996.
Species Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-332, 110 Stat. 4073 (1996).
This was the 332nd law passed by the 104th Congress. It is located in volume
110 of the U. S. Statutes at Large beginning on page 4073 and passed in 1996.
U. S. Constitution
In-text: (U. S.
Reference list: U. S. Constitution,
Art. I, § 9, cl. 2.
Article I, section 9, clause 2. Not addressed in APA Manual; example based on general guidelines.
In-text: (Pistachios Grown in
Pistachios Grown in
California: Establishment of Continuing Assessment Rate and Reporting
Requirements, 70 Fed. Reg. 9843 (2005) (to be codified at 7 C.F.R. pt. 983
Volume 70 of the Federal Register, page 9843. Pagination in Federal Register starts at the beginning of the year and is
continuous through the daily issues of the year. (The volume for 2008 included
over 80,000 pages.) Therefore, only a volume and page number are needed.
Final regulation, published in Federal Register; will be codified in Code of Federal
Regulations at Title 7, part
Code of Federal Regulations
In-text: (Protection of Human
Reference list: Protection of Human
Subjects, 34 C.F.R. pt. 97 (2004).
Regulation is in Title 34, part 97. (APA Manual erroneously calls the first number a "volume" instead
of "title" number. [p. 223] )
In-text: (Executive Order No.
Reference list: Exec. Order No.
12,804, 3 C.F.R. 298 (1992 comp.)
Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations is published annually and contains the previous year's
Presidential executive orders and other directives. APA does not explain whether the year the
executive order is issued or the year the compilation is printed should be
used. To save confusion, use "comp." after the year to indicate it is
the compilation year rather than the year the President issued the executive
APA also says to provide
a parallel citation (if applicable) to the executive order's location in the U. S. Code. The U. S. Code does not contain every executive order.
»»NOTE: Current United States
treaties are issued individually by the Dept. of State in "slip" form
as the "Treaties and Other International Acts Series" (TIAS).
Each is assigned a number ("TIAS [number]"). The State Department
has later republished each treaty in the annual United States Treaties
and Other International Agreements set since 1950.
Texts of treaties signed before 1950
can best be cited to a multivolume work compiled by Charles Bevans from 1968 to
1974 for the Dept. of State. (see below - "Treaty in compilation,
The APA Manual does not address treaty citations; the following examples are
based on the general guidelines for legislative/legal
materials. (See Bluebook, sec. 21.4, for the formal legal citation method.)
In-text: (Agricultural Commodities Agreement, 1977)
Commodities Agreement, United States-Philippines, May 12, 1977, Treaties and
Other International Acts Series 8684.
»»NOTE: "Slip" form
of treaty; use TIAS number.
Treaty in compilation,
In-text: (Establishment of
Tariff Duties, 1866)
Return to table of contents
»»NOTE: The in-text citation
is formed with the first few words of the title and the date.
of Tariff Duties with Respect to Japan, United States-Japan, June 25, 1866,
T.S. 188, In C. Bevans, Ed.). (1968). Treaties
and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949,
(pp. 18-28). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
means Treaty Series.
Treaty in annual
In-text: (Fisheries Off the
United States, 1977)
Off the United States Coast Agreement, United States-Cuba, April 27, 1977.
(TIAS 8689). United States Treaties and Other International Agreements Vol.
28 (pp. 6770-6814).
L. S. (1980). How valid are occupational reinforcer pattern scores? (Report No.
CSOS--R-92). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social
Organization of Schools. ERIC Document ED182465.
APA says to enclose additional information needed for
identification of a publication (report number, etc.) in parentheses after the
title, as above. (p. 185). In the example for an ERIC document
retrieved from a database, the ERIC document number is also included. (p.
212) The "ED" number clearly identifies a specific title.
See also "Electronic and Online Resources" section.
The APA Manual does not provide guidance for citing documents from state
government agencies. The following examples are based on the general
instructions and follow the format used for federal documents. See electronic resources section also.
State agency document:
Nebraska Department of Roads. (2003). Traffic crash facts,
2002, State of Nebraska.
Lincoln, NE: Author.
»»NOTE: When the author and
publisher are identical, use the word "Author" as the name of the
publisher. (p. 187)
State agency document: Personal author
R. F., Mohlman, D. R., Corner, R. G., Harvey, F. E., Warren, K. J., Summerside,
S., ... Eversoll, D. A. (2002). Field guide to the
geology of the Harlan County lake area, Harlan County, Nebraska, with a history
of events leading to construction of Harlan County Dam. (Educational
Circular No. 16). Lincoln: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Conservation and
In-text: (Diffendal et al., 2002)
»»NOTE: If there are
eight or more authors, include the first six followed by an ellipsis (three
dots: ... ) and add the last author's name. (p. 184) If the name of
the state is included in the name of the university, don't give the state name
("NE") in the publisher information. (p. 187)
NEBRASKA DOCUMENT PERIODICAL ARTICLE
Article with corporate author
Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. (1999). The blizzard of '49.
77 (1), 36-45.
»»NOTE: Page numbers start
over for each issue; include issue number in parentheses, after volume
number. (p. 186)
Article with a personal author
Fagan, M. (1998). "Give till it hurts": Financing
Memorial Stadium. Nebraska History, 79, 179-191.
»»NOTE: Page numbers continue
through the volume; do not include issue number. Quotation marks were in the
title of the article.
»»NOTE: A format similar to
federal documents is used.
Laws of Nebraska (Nebraska session laws)
In-text: Nebraska Investment
Finance Authority Act (1983)
Nebraska Investment Finance Authority Act, LB 626 § 1, Laws of Nebraska, 1983.
Legislative bill 626, section 1. If the law is currently in force, cite it to
the Nebraska Statutes rather than to the Laws of Nebraska.
Nebraska Statutes: Reissue of the Revised
Statutes of Nebraska, 1943
(Codification of current
In-text: Nebraska Investment
Finance Authority Act (1983)
Nebraska Investment Finance Authority
Act, Neb. Rev. Stat., §§ 58-201-272 (1998).
»»EXPLANATION: Revised Statutes of
Nebraska, Chapter 58, Sections
201-272, reissue of 1998. (Reissue date is at top of spine of each bound
volume; include in citation.)
Nebraska Supreme Court
and Court of Appeals
Nebraska Supreme Court
In-text: Anderson v. Carlson (1961)
(Anderson v. Carlson 1961)
Reference list: Anderson v. Carlson, 171 Neb. 741, 107 N.W.2d
»»EXPLANATION: Volume 171, Nebraska Supreme Court Reports, page 741; case decided in 1961. Usually the
first page of the case is used in the citation.
Italics are not used when citing a
court case on a reference list. Use italics in the text citation,
Include a parallel citation to the
regional reporter your case is in. Nebraska cases are reprinted in the North Western
Reporter, (N.W.). The "2d"
means "second series".
Nebraska Court of Appeals
abbreviation for the Nebraska Court of Appeals is "Neb. App."
Example: Cochran v. Bill's
Trucking, 10 Neb. App. 48, 624 N.W.2d 338
Court of Appeals cases are also reported in the North Western Reporter.
Nebraska Administrative Code
In-text: (Approval of Teacher Education Programs, 2005)
Reference list: Approval of Teacher Education
Programs, Neb. Admin. Code. 92 NAC 20.001 (2005).
The Nebraska Administrative Code contains rules and regulations issued by
Nebraska state agencies. The abbreviation for the title is from the Bluebook. The last element is a legal citation
to title, chapter, and section.
ELECTRONIC AND ONLINE RESOURCES
While the APA Manual recognizes information from the Web can be in
a variety of formats and difficult to cite, it states:
"In general, we
recommend that you include the same elements, in the same order, as you would
for a reference to a fixed-media source and add as much electronic retrieval
information as needed for others to locate the sources you cited."
See examples in the preceeding printed resources sections (above) for
in-text formats. Examples below are in reference list format.
The Manual emphasizes the use of
DOI's, digital object identifiers, and includes them, if available, instead of
URL's. URL's are used if no DOI can be found. (p.
191) (See pgs. 187 - 192 for more information on DOI's.)
If no DOI has been assigned, give the home page URL of the journal, book, or
report. If the URL is so long as to
continue onto a second line, break it after a slash or before a period.
Usually it is not necessary to include database information since coverage of
titles may vary over time. (p. 192) However, the Manual states that database names may be given for
material of "limited circulation". ( p. 202) Sociological Abstracts and Wiley InterScience are used in two examples to illustrate
this. Most of the examples have a direct URL to the resource which may or
may not be available within a database. If no "permanent link"
to the individual title is in the electronic record, it seems best to give
the name of the database used to find the resource.
for retrieval statement:
If the name of the database is used, follow it with a colon before the
URL. If the URL alone follows "Retrieved from" do not
precede the URL with a colon
Retrieved from GPO
Access database: (URL)
Retrieved from (URL)
additional information may be found at: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx
DOCUMENTS FROM FEDERAL
General format: An individual work
Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition).
Retrieved from (URL)
If no date is given, use
"n.d." for "no date".
General format: In-text citation
Use the author(s) last name(s), date of
publication, and the page number. If there are no page numbers, use the
paragraph number: (Jones, 2004, para. 3). If paragraph numbers are not
available, use the heading the information is under, count the paragraphs to
the information cited, and use this number as the paragraph number. (p.
If no author is indicated, use the
first few words of the title.
To cite an entire
Library of Congress.
(1989). Bolivia: A country study. Retrieved from
To cite part (chapter, section, etc.) of an individual work:
Library of Congress.
(1989). Bolivia: social organization. In Bolivia: A country
Retrieved from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/botoc.html
»»NOTE: If there are no page numbers, the chapter title is
sufficient. (p. 203) Break the URL, if needed, after a slash or before a
Periodical article from government web site:
R. L., Cramer, S., & Stanek, K. (2002, spring). Economic strain and
community concerns in three meatpacking communities (Nebraska). Rural
America, 17 (1), 20-25. Retrieved from
Oscar-Berman, M. &
Marinkovic, K. Alcoholism and the brain: An overview. Alcohol
Research and Health (27), 125 - 133. Retrieved from the National Institute on
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health website:
»»NOTE: APA says to identify the
publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been
identified as the author. (p. 205) Precede the URL with a
colon. Break the URL, if needed, after a slash or before a period.
Accountability Office. (2003, July). No Child Left Behind
Act: More information would help states determine which teachers are highly
(Publication No. GAO-03-631). Retrieved from GAO Reports Main Page via GPO
Access database: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/gaoreports/index.html
»»NOTE: When a document is not easily located through
primary publishing channels, give the home or entry page URL for the database.
U. S. Bureau of the
Census. (n.d.). 1990 census of population and housing, summary
tape file 3A [CD]. Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census.
»»NOTE: APA's only compact
disc example is for music.
Statistical table on a CD-ROM
U. S. Bureau of the
Census. (n. d.). Means of transportation to work, Kearney city, Nebraska. In 1990
Census of population and housing summary tape file 3A [CD]. Washington, D.
C: Bureau of the Census.
Keith, Diana J.
(1993). New K - 12 curriculum materials in the government documents
[Monograph] (ED377886) Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/
»»NOTE: APA gives two examples
for ERIC documents (p. 204 and 212). One has only the URL while the other
includes the name of the database and document number (ED number). It
seems best to include the "ED" number since that clearly identifies a
specific title and can also be used to search for a title in the
database. The example on page 204 includes [Monograph].
CONGRESSIONAL AND LEGAL MATERIALS
on scientific objectives for climate change legislation: Hearing before
the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, 111th Cong.
(Serial No. 111-1). (2009). Retrieved from GPO Access
»»NOTE: If the hearing has been given
a number include it after the title. (p. 205) A "purl" is
considered a permanent link.
»»NOTE: The APA Manual suggests following The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for
Legal Citations. Some of the
following examples are based on the general guidelines, adapted for online
sources. It also says to always cite the printed source and include
a parallel citation to the electronic source if it will substantially improve
18.2.2) See example for U.
S. Supreme Court case, below.
Congressional bill -
Against Women Act of 1999, H.R. 357, 106th Cong. (1999). Retrieved from
Lexis/Nexis Congressional database.
House or Senate report or document - Lexis/Nexis Congressional
S. Rep. No. 105-273, at 2 (1998).
Retrieved from Lexis/Nexis Congressional database.
»NOTE: Cited material begins on pg. 2. Use. "S. Rep."
or "H.R. Rep." for a Senate or House report, "H.R. Doc." or
"S. Doc." for House or Senate documents. APA says to use the "year" of the
Congress and the calendar year but uses the number of the Congress (i.e. 105th
Congress) in its examples. (p. 223). Use the number of the Congress.
Congressional Record -
Sen. [NE]. (1998, July 23). Amendment no. 3275, prohibit Environmental
Protection Agency enforcement of public drinking water treatment requirements
for copper. In Congressional Record 144, S8830. Retrieved from Lexis/Nexis Congressional
»»EXPLANATION: 144 is the volume number, S8830 is the page
number - Senate portion of Record. The Manual does not provide guidance for the Congressional Record. The above is based on citing part of a
U. S. Statutes at
Large - Lexis/Nexis Congressional
D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Amendments of 1998, Pub.
L. No. 105-332. 112 Stat. 3076 (1998). Retrieved from Lexis/Nexis
»»EXPLANATION: Public law 105-332, in volume 112; 3076 is
the first page of the law.
U. S. Code -
Carl D. Perkins
Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, 20 U.S.C. §2301 et
Retrieved from Lexis/Nexis Congressional database.
»»EXPLANATION: 20 is the title number, 2301 is the first
section of the law. "et seq." means the act includes other sections
that follow the initial section. Cited is the 2006 edition of the Code.
U. S. Constitution - GPO Access
Constitution of the United States of America, analysis and interpretation. (S. Doc. 108-17).
(2002 Suppl.) Retrieved from GPO Access database:
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents
Public Papers of the President
via GPO Access
Bush, G. W. Address
before a joint session of the Congress on the state of the union, January 20,
2004. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States:
George W. Bush (pp. 94-101). Retrieved from GPO Access database:
U. S. Supreme Court
Case - Lexis/Nexis Academic
Regents of the
University of California v. Bakke. 438 U.S. 265 (1978). Retrieved from
Lexis/Nexis Academic database. (1978 U.S. LEXIS 5).
»»EXPLANATION: 438 is the volume number, 265 is the first
page of the decision. Date is when the case was decided. The Bluebook states that a parallel citation to an
electronic source may be provided if it will substantially improve
access. (18.2.2) Include the Lexis citation as above.
Code of Federal
Regulations - Lexis/Nexis Academic
Minerals management. 36 C.F.R. § 9 (2010).
Retrieved from Lexis/Nexis Academic database.
»»EXPLANATION: APA erroneously calls the first number a "volume" number
and second number a "section". It is "Title 36" and
Federal Register -
airports: Enhanced security procedures for operations at certain airports in
the Washington, DC metropolitan area flight restricted area. 70 Fed. Reg. 7,150
(February 10, 2005) (to be codified at 49 C.F.R. §1562). Retrieved from
Lexis/Nexis Congressional database.
»»EXPLANATION: Volume 70, page
7,150. Title 49, part 1562; see explanation in CFR example above.
FROM NEBRASKA STATE AGENCIES
publication - personal author(s)
Link, M., & Inman,
D. Ground water monitoring at livestock waste control facilities in
Nebraska, December, 2003. (2004). Nebraska Dept. of Environmental Quality.
Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.ne.us/Publica.nsf/Pages/WAT062
Nebraska agency publication - agency as author
Nebraska Health and
Human Services System. (2004). Nebraska adolescents:
The results of 2003 youth risk behavior survey of Nebraska public high school
students (grades 9 - 12). Retrieved from
»»NOTE: A link to the Nebraska Library Commission's
("nlc") "epubs" site can be considered a permanent link.
Periodical article from a Nebraska agency
Sutherland, J. (2004,
December). Job vacancy survey update. Economic Trends: A
Monthly Review of Labor Market Information, 1, 4-6. Nebraska Dept.
of Labor. Retrieved from
»»NOTE: If there is a personal author, include the name of the state
agency to indicate the source.
Nebraska State Data
Center, University of Nebraska at Omaha. (n.d.) Nebraska
counties ranked by selected social and economic characteristics: 2000 census. Retrieved from
Publications from the
(99th Legislature, 1st sess., 2005). Employment Security
Law, LB 739. Retrieved from
Nebraska Blue Book
Presidential election statistics, 1868 - 2008. (2009). In Heltzel, K. (Ed.) Nebraska
(pp. 939 - 941). Retrieved from http://nebraskalegislature.gov/pdf/bluebook/937-972.pdf
(2010, January 6 - 8). Legislative session convenes. Unicameral
Update: The Nebraska Legislature's Weekly Publication, 33 (1), 1.
Retrieved from http://www.nebraskalegislature.gov/pdf/update/Jan6-8_2010.pdf
»»NOTE: Article is in the issue published for the week of Jan. 6 -
8, volume 33, issue 1, on page 1.
Decision of the Nebraska Supreme Court
Nebraska Court of Appeals
Nancy D. Vice v. Darm
Corporation. 224 Neb. 1 (1986) (395 N.W.2d 524). Retrieved from
Lexis/Nexis Academic database.
»»EXPLANATION: Volume 224, case begins on page 1. Include
the parallel citation to the regional reporter (North Western Reporter) location of the same case.
Abbreviation for the Nebraska Court of
Appeals is "Neb. App.": 10 Neb. App. 69 (include citation
to N.W.2d also).
Personal Property, Landlord and Tenant Act. Neb. Rev. Stat. §69-2301
(2004). Retrieved from Lexis/Nexis Academic database.
»»EXPLANATION: Revised Statues of Nebraska, chapter 69, section 2301, published in
Rules and regulations
concerning the administration of the Affordable Housing Act. 86 Neb. Admin.
Code 5 (pp. 4 - 12) (2005). Retrieved from
»»EXPLANATION: Title 86, chapter 5, pages 4 - 12. Nebraska
Administrative Code is also abbreviated
"NAC". Abbreviation used in example above is from
Diana J. Keith,
Government Documents Librarian
Calvin T. Ryan Library
University of Nebraska at Kearney
Kearney, NE 68849-2240
Revised January 2010
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